The C rating of a battery is the “discharge rate” which is equal to C * capacity (mA rating) of the battery and has nothing to do with the charge rate. So for your example, a 150mAh 45C battery has a theoretical max discharge current of 6.75A. In practice however, a battery is not effective at the maximum discharge rate due to the large voltage drop at a high current (due to the internal resistance),
Most batteries will not have a charge rate specified in “C” which means that the safe charge rate is 1C which is the battery capacity rating. e.g, 150mAh or 2200mAh using your two examples could be charged at 150mA and 2200mA respectively.
So in theory, you should be able to charge any capacity battery at 1C which will take 1 hour. In practice however, a lithium based battery cannot accept the full current for the entire hour. The last 10-20% of the charge is slower (less current) so the battery can absorb the entire charge. Lithium based chargers use a multi stage charging algorithm so they charge at a constant current first, then when maximum voltage it reached (i.e. 4.2V), it switches to a constant voltage mode to finish the charge while making sure the voltage never goes above the maximum voltage (i.e. 4.2V)
A good analogy of charging a lithium based battery is the filling of a bucket of water with a high pressure nozzle. It fills fine without over spill for the first 1/2-3/4 of the bucket but you must lower the pressure to fill it to the top, otherwise the water will splash out due to the high pressure.
Unless your battery or the manufacturer specifies that you can charge your specific battery at a C rating >1 (which almost none do), then great, other wise no matter what size lithium battery you have, it will take 1 hour plus a little more for a full charge.
Of course you can charge it at a higher rate but if it’s not engineered to take it, you risk catastrophic damage to the battery and things around it.
Having said all of that, most modelers believe a modern lithium battery (aka 35C or greater discharge rating) can be charged at more than 1C. But most modelers are not electrical engineers either.
I regularly charge at 1.5C to 2C as long as I’m doing it in a safe place and monitoring it but I also know that I am prematurely reducing the lifespan of the battery and I take precautions and responsibility when I do so.
Lot of stuff there but it should give you enough key words that yu can google and find out way more than you ever wanted to know about charging and discharging batteries.